Nova A.
Nova A.

Learn the 3 Different Types of Argument and Multiple Argument Claims

8 min read

Published on: Feb 19, 2018

Last updated on: Nov 22, 2023

types of argument

An argument is a series of statements or facts intended to develop or support a point of view. It is usually known as a claim backed up with evidence, facts, and examples. 

The way you structure the argument in your essay makes a huge difference. It will either set your paper apart or mix up with the other average papers without leaving an impact.

Recently, we created a complete guide to crafting an impressive argumentative essay from scratch. In this article, we will be focusing entirely on three core strategies and types of arguments.

Let’s learn how you can structure your essay with these 3 types of argument.

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3 Main Types of Argument

There are 3 types of arguments that you'll most likely encounter while writing an argumentative essay. These are:

Classical Argument 

The Classical or Aristotelian model of argument is the most common type of argument. It was developed by the Greek philosopher and Rhetorician Aristotle.

In the classical model, both sides of an argument are analyzed, and one side is proven right using clear evidence

This model efficiently utilizes Ethos (authenticity) + Pathos (emotion) + Logos (logic) to persuade an audience to a side of an argument.

The classical model argumentative essay takes into account the following things:

  • Introduces the main claim or the argument of the essay.
  • Present the writer's perspective on the argument. The reasons something is not working and why something should be done.
  • Take into account the other side of the argument. Explain them in detail and refute them with the help of evidence.
  • Provide clear evidence that proves that your side of the claim is true.
  • Provide the conclusion which states the benefits of accepting your claim.

The structure of the classical model is as follows:

  1. Introduction - hook statement, brief background, thesis statement
  2. Body - topic sentence, facts & evidence to prove the argument
  3. Counter argument - opposing arguments, evidence and reasons to refute the counter-arguments
  4. Conclusion - restating the thesis statement, call to action and concluding remarks

Here is an example that follows this model:

The use of public funds to support space exploration is a wise investment in our future because it fosters scientific innovation, stimulates economic growth, and inspires future generations.

Toulmin Argument 

The Toulmin model for argumentative essays was developed by Stephen Toulmin. Unlike the classical model of argument, it presents only one side of the argument. This model works well when there is no clear truth or an absolute solution to a problem.

It breaks the argument into 6 basic components: 

  1. Claim
  2. Grounds
  3. Warrant
  4. Backing
  5. Qualifier
  6. Rebuttal

The structure of the Toulmin model is as follow:

  1. Introduction - thesis statement or the main claim
  2. Body - facts & evidence to support the argument
  3. Conclusion - rebuttal of counter-arguments

Here is an example outline of an argumentative essay about abortion in the Toulmin Model:

The increase in carbon emissions from human activities is causing global climate change (claim) because there is substantial scientific evidence (grounds), such as rising global temperatures and melting ice caps, supporting this conclusion (warrant).

Rogerian Argument

The Rogerian model of argument was developed by Carl R. Rogers to provide a middle ground between opposing parties. This model works on collaboration and cooperation. It acknowledges that an argument can be looked at from different standpoints.

The objectives of the Rogerian model are:

  • To show the reader that you have listened to their viewpoints and understood the complexities of the argument.
  • To define the area where the writer acknowledges the reader's claim to be valid.
  • Show the reader that you both share similar moral qualities and want to discover a solution that is mutually acceptable.

Each Rogerian model argumentative essay should define all of these aims.

The structure of the Rogerian model is as follow:

  1. Introduction - Introduction to the argument and thesis statement.
  2. Opposing position: An acknowledgment that there is another side of the argument.
  3. State your claim: Your own perspective about the argument. 
  4. Provide a middle ground: Carefully bring both sides of the argument together and provide a compromised solution. 
  5. Conclusion - Concluding remarks that state the benefits of a compromised solution.

Here’s a short example:

While there are valid concerns about privacy and data security with social media platforms (acknowledging opposing concerns), it's essential to recognize the positive aspects of social media, such as its role in connecting people globally and promoting social causes.

You can follow any of these 3 types of argument essay models in your argumentative essay. These models will help you to write an argumentative essay in a well-structured and persuasive way. 

Types of Argument Claims

An argument claim, often simply referred to as a "claim," is a 

“declarative statement or proposition put forward in an argument or discussion.”

It is the central point or thesis that the person making the argument is trying to prove or persuade others to accept. 

Factual Claims

Factual claims are statements that assert something as a fact or reality. They are based on observable evidence and can be proven or disproven. 

For example, 

"Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius at sea level"
 is a factual claim because it can be tested and confirmed.

Value Claims

Value claims express personal opinions, preferences, or judgments about something. They are not about facts but about what someone believes is right, good, or important. 

For instance, 

"Eating a balanced diet is healthier" 
is a value claim because it reflects an opinion about what constitutes a healthy diet.

Policy Claims

Policy claims propose a specific course of action or advocate for a change in the way things are done. They are often found in discussions about laws, regulations, or actions that should be taken. 

An example would be,

"The government should invest more in renewable energy sources to combat climate change."

Causal Claims

Causal claims assert a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more phenomena. They suggest that one thing is responsible for another.

For instance,

"Smoking cigarettes increases the risk of lung cancer" 
is a causal claim because it links smoking to the likelihood of developing lung cancer.

Definitional Claims

Definitional claims seek to clarify or establish the meaning of a term or concept. They aim to set a specific definition or understanding for a particular word or idea. 

For example

"In this context, 'freedom' refers to the absence of coercion or restraint." 
This claim defines what 'freedom' means in the given discussion.

Understanding these different types of argument claims can help you identify the nature of statements in discussions and debates. This makes it easier to analyze and respond to various arguments.

Steps to Structure an Argumentative Essay

You may have a very good and controversial argument in mind with strong evidence to prove it. However, if you haven't structured your argument properly, your argument is wasted.

Here are the easy steps that can help you structure your argument effectively:

  • Choose a controversial and debatable topic from a comprehensive list of argumentative essay topics
  • Decide the type of claim that you want to make with your essay. 
  • Decide the type of argument structure you want to follow in your essay.
  • Collect facts and evidence from credible sources and use them to support your claim.
  • Develop a strong argumentative essay outline.
  • Study some argumentative essay examples to get a deeper understanding of how to develop an argument in the essay. 
  • Begin your essay with an arguable claim or premises.
  • Make sure your claim is logical and is developed coherently throughout the essay.
  • Provide a conclusion that clearly matches the type of argument model you have followed.

Now that you've got the basics of different argument types, you're all set to start writing your argumentative essays.

However, if you still need expert help, you can hire a qualified writer from our professional essay writing service.

We know how to create strong and convincing arguments that will make your essays shine. Our argumentative essay writing service is available 24/7 to assist you with all of your argumentative writing needs.

Place your order today!

Nova A.


Nova A. (Literature, Marketing)

Nova Allison is a Digital Content Strategist with over eight years of experience. Nova has also worked as a technical and scientific writer. She is majorly involved in developing and reviewing online content plans that engage and resonate with audiences. Nova has a passion for writing that engages and informs her readers.

Nova Allison is a Digital Content Strategist with over eight years of experience. Nova has also worked as a technical and scientific writer. She is majorly involved in developing and reviewing online content plans that engage and resonate with audiences. Nova has a passion for writing that engages and informs her readers.

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